Conservation Everywhere, or Just Over There?
|Term ||Definition ||Reference |
|Protected Area ||Physical land area with legal protection for conservation that allows for the management of resources ||Phillips, 2003 |
|Landscape Scale Approach ||Conservation strategy that seeks to protect biodiversity and ecosystem processes on a broad scale. Includes traditional protected areas but also extends to the wider landscape. Also referred to as ecosystem or broad scale conservation. ||Weeks, 1997 |
|Ecosystem ||Includes biotic and abiotic features as well as processes within. ‘large, somehow coherent pieces of the land and waterscape’ ||Weeks, 1997: 33 |
|Ecosystem Function ||The interactions of biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. These processes yield ecosystem services. ||Dickinson and Murphy, 2007 |
|Single Species Approach ||Conservation Strategy that focuses on the protection of a single species. Usually rare or threatened, though perhaps also used as a proxy for the protection of other resources within a given area. ||Weeks, 1997 |
|Keystone Species ||Species with a high impact on ecosystem function relative to its population size. ||Noss and Soule, 1998 |
|Ecosystem Process ||Example of Resulting Services |
|Water Cycling ||Water purification, water storage, flood retention |
|Nutrient Cycling ||Maintenance of productive soils |
|Energy Cycling ||Contribution of oceanic currents to terrestrial temperatures, photosynthesis |
|Community Interactions ||Pollination, air purification, photosynthesis |
Protected Area Advantages
Prevent over-fishing within marine and freshwater ecosystems. Assists in the maintenance of trophic balance.
Prevent over-hunting or poaching of species. Benefits the conservation of threatened species as well as community interactions within ecosystems.
Prevent further habitat fragmentation in protected areas. Also prevents increase in tourist pressure by limiting access to sensitive areas.
Limits on Resource Extraction
Prevent removal of resources (timber, minerals, etc) within protected areas. Prevent disturbances associated with such extraction including pollution, soil erosion, and road construction.
Reduce harmful land uses adjacent to protected areas.
‘multiple, complex and often ecologically important’ changes in marine reserves. Robust protected areas also provide necessary resilience to and refuge from climate change for many species of conservation interest (Watts and Davis, 2007). Core conservation areas have led to creative thinking about ways to link habitat remnants. Efforts to build on the successes of conservation have led to the merging of reserves such as Glacier National Park and Waterton Lakes National Park, which became the world’s first International Peace Park (Zinkan 1992). In considering the victories of protected areas, issues of temporal and spatial scale arise. Although much conservation research focuses on national parks, the contribution of urban and regional parks in the maintenance of biodiversity and open space for ecosystem processes should be considered in any holistic appraisal of protected areas (Savard et al., 2000). Smaller parks and reserves contribute to local quality of life and provide potential linkages for gene flow and wildlife movement.
Potential Land Uses
|Dominant use is nature conservation. ||Parks and Reserves. |
Marine Protected Areas.
|Dominant uses include sustainable resource extraction. ||Agricultural land. Forestry. Mining. |
Intensive Use Lands
|Dominant use is anthropocentric. ||Urban areas. Fishing zones. Shipping harbors. |
|Opportunity ||Goal |
|Agri-Environment Schemes ||Incentivize sustainable farming (Dutton et al., 2008) |
|Conservation Easements ||Reduce intensive uses of lands that have conservation value. |
|Carbon Sequestration Incentives ||Encourage private land owners to mange land for carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. (Nelson et al., 2008) |
|Biodiversity Incentives ||Encourage private land owners to manage land for biodiversity conservation. (Nelson et al., 2008) |
|Decentralized Wildlife Management ||Allow indigenous and local people to mange wildlife resources. (Brockington et al., 2008) |
|Public Comment/Process ||Allow public input/participation on conservation planning. |
|Local Stewardship Initiatives ||Encourage local participation in management of protected areas. Example: habitat restoration work groups |
|Wildlife Monitoring ||Allow local contributions to monitoring of important wildlife. |
|Invasive Species Monitoring ||Utilize local land users in the monitoring of invasive species colonization and spread. |